Technical Data

Aveng Infraset manufactures reinforced concrete pipes using two well-known production processes: roller suspension and automated vertical casting using high strength, high durability concrete. Both these processes are used worldwide and are acknowledged to be ideal for concrete pipe manufacturing.

All the manufacturing processes are done under carefully controlled conditions using advanced technology and equipment. These processes provide flexibility for the manufacturing of tailormade wall thicknesses for special load and strength requirements.

If corrosion problems are anticipated, Aveng Infraset has several methods of prolonging the life of the concrete pipe. The substitution of the siliceous aggregates with calcareous aggregates results in the extended life of the concrete pipe. An HDPE liner can alternatively be added to the bore of the pipe to prevent the sulphuric acids from coming into contact with the concrete surface.

Classification of Pipes

Types of pipe

Aveng Infraset offers a large range of pipes readily available in nominal lengths of 2.5m and also half-lengths on special arrangement.

Pipes ranging from Ø300 to Ø1800 with Interlocking ogee joints, Ø300 to Ø1800 pipes with Spigot and Socket joints and Ø900 to Ø1800 pipes with In-the-Wall joints are all produced in three strength classes.

Jacking pipes are manufactured only in class 100D and vary in size from Ø840 to Ø2500. Stronger pipes capable of carrying higher D-loads are manufactured on request.

All Aveng Infraset pipes bear the SANS mark and are designed, manufactured and tested in accordance with SANS 677.

SC (Stormwater Culvert) pipes are manufactured with a non-watertight, interlocking ogee joint.

The sewer and irrigation (SI) pipes are manu-factured using dolomitic aggregates and have a watertight Spigot and Socket or In-the-Wall joint. Sewer pipes with a sacrificial layer (WSL) are manufactured to the SABS 1200 LD requirements with an additional 15mm cover for pipes ranging from Ø300 to Ø1050 and 20mm for pipes Ø1200 – Ø1800. T2 and T4 pressure pipes, tested to 2 and 4 bar respectively are available on request.

Spigot and Socket and In-the-Wall joint pipes are joined and sealed using either a rolling rubber or a sliding rubber ring respectively. The sliding rubber ring is installed using a soft soap lubricant.

Type of joints

Technical Data

Strength of pipes

Two strength tests are done on Aveng Infraset pipes. The first is a crushing test on both the SC and SI pipes, and the second is a hydraulic pressure test only on the SI pipes. The two edge-bearing crushing test is done to a proof load and also to an ultimate load 25% greater than the proof load. The proof load is determined by the class of pipe multiplied by the nominal diameter of the pipe. The proof load test can be defined as a line load that a pipe must resist without the development of crack widths exceeding 0.25mm over a length of more than 300mm. The ultimate load is the maximum line load that the pipe must support in the same test.

Load classifications

Class of Pipe   Proof Load   Ultimate Load
50D 50 x D 50 x D x 1.25
75D 75 x D 75 x D x 1.25
100D 100 x D 100 x D x 1.25

Note: D = Nominal Diameter in metres.

Example: A 1500mm 75D pipe must resist:
Proof Load = 75 x 1.5 = 113 kN/m
Ultimate Load = 75 x 1.5 x 1.25 = 140 kN/m

All SI pipes are tested to 1,4 bar and passes the test if the pipe withstands the pressure for at least two minutes without any sign of leakage.

Loads on pipes

Working loads on pipes consist of primary and secondary loads. The primary loads that the pipes must carry are; the mass of earth fill above the pipe, traffic loading and internal pressures. The secondary loads result from soil movement and temperature effects that influence the pipe line. These secondary loads are accommodated by the flexible pipe joints.

Earth loads are determined using the Marston and Spangler theory and are dependant upon the type of installation, type of backfill material and height of fill. The two installation conditions are trench and embankment.

Traffic loads are dependant upon the wheel loads, spacing and contact areas, and the distribution of these through the fill. The standard traffic loads applicable to national highways are given in the TMH7: Code of practice for the design of highway bridges and culverts in South Africa. Aveng Infraset pipes are designed for a NB36 load, which equals an axle load of 360 kN or a 90 kN wheel load. The effective contact area of the load is a square of size 0.3m x 0.3m.

Bedding factor refers to the amount by which the bedding enhances the load-carrying capacity of the pipe. The bedding factor is defined as the ratio between the supporting strength of the buried pipe to the strength of the pipe as determined in the two-edge bearing test. The bedding of a pipe consists of a cradle of granular material underneath the pipe, which supports it and transfers the load to the foundation. Bedding factors are divided into four classes and are determined by the angle of support and type of the bedding material.

Standard bedding classes and factors

Class 

Trench  

Embankment  

Bedding Angle  

 

A

2.8

3.8

120

Technical Data

B

2.0

2.5

180

C

1.5

2.0

90

D

1.1

N/A

0

Installation conditions

Trench condition occurs when the pipe is placed in a trench cut into natural ground level and then backfilled with suitable material.

In the embankment condition the pipe is installed at ground level and is backfilled with suitable material.

Please see gallery for diagrams.

Maximum Fill Heights on Pipes

The following tables give the pipe strength requirements in terms of D-Loads for pipes laid in a trench condition, with trench widths as per SANS 1200DB, and in embankment condition, both with NB36 traffic loading. These tables meet the D-Load requirements for general site conditions.

Required D-Load pipe for a Class-B bedding in a Trench with TMH7 traffic loading

Nom. Dia.

Pipe OD

Trench width

Height of backfill above top of pipe (m)

(mm)

(mm)

(m)

0.3

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

5.5

6.0

6.5

7.0

7.5

8.0

8.5

9.0

9.5

10.0

225

280

0.88

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

75

75

75

75

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

300

368

0.97

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

75

75

75

75

75

75

100

100

100

100

100

100

375

460

1.06

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

75

75

75

75

75

75

75

75

75

75

100

100

450

536

1.14

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

75

75

75

75

75

75

75

75

75

75

75

525

629

1.22

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

75

75

75

75

75

75

75

75

75

75

75

600

700

1.30

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

75

75

75

75

75

75

75

75

75

75

75

675

795

1.40

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

75

75

75

75

75

75

75

75

75

75

75

750

874

1.67

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

75

75

75

75

75

75

100

100

100

100

100

825

952

1.76

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

75

75

75

75

75

75

100

100

100

100

100

900

1035

1.84

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

75

75

75

75

75

75

100

100

100

100

100

1050

1185

2.20

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

75

75

75

75

75

100

100

100

100

100

100

1200

1340

2.37

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

75

75

75

75

75

100

100

100

100

100

100

1350

1500

2.52

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

75

75

75

75

75

100

100

100

100

100

100

1500

1670

2.69

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

75

75

75

75

75

100

100

100

100

100

100

1650

1830

2.88

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

75

75

75

75

75

100

100

100

100

100

100

1800

2003

3.02

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

75

75

75

75

75

100

100

100

100

100

100

Required D-Load pipe for a Class-C bedding in a Trench with TMH7 traffic loading

Nom. Dia.

Pipe OD

Trench width

Height of backfill above top of pipe (m)

(mm)

(mm)

(m)

0.3

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

5.5

6.0

6.5

7.0

7.5

8.0

8.5

9.0

9.5

10.0

225

280

0.88

75 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 125 125 125 125 125

300

368

0.97

75 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 75 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

375

460

1.06

75 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 75 75 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

450

536

1.14

75 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 75 75 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

525

629

1.22

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 75 75 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

600

700

1.30

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 75 75 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

675

795

1.40

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 75 75 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

750

874

1.67

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 75 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 125

825

952

1.76

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 75 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 125

900

1035

1.84

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 75 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 125

1050

1185

2.20

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 75 100 100 100 100 100 100 125 125 125 125

1200

1340

2.37

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 75 100 100 100 100 100 100 125 125 125 125

1350

1500

2.52

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 75 100 100 100 100 100 100 125 125 125 125

1500

1670

2.69

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 75 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 125 125 125

1650

1830

2.88

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 75 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 125 125 125

1800

2003

3.02

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 75 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 125 125 125

Design criteria:

  1. Granular backfill material k?= 0.1650
  2. Soil Density = 20 kN/m3
  3. Projection Ratio P = 0.9
  4. Settlement Ratio rsd= 0.7
Required D-Load pipe for a Class-B bedding in a Embankment with TMH7 traffic loading

Nom. Dia.

Pipe OD

Height of backfill above top of pipe (m)

(mm)

(mm)

0.3

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

5.5

6.0

6.5

7.0

7.5

8.0

8.5

9.0

9.5

10.0

225

280

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 100 100 100 100 100 100 125 125 150 150 150 150

300

368

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 100 100 100 100 100 100 125 125 125 150 150 150

375

460

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 100 100 100 100 100 100 125 125 125 150 150 150

450

536

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 75 100 100 100 100 100 125 125 150 150 150

525

629

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 75 75 100 100 100 100 125 125 125 150 150

600

700

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 75 75 100 100 100 100 125 125 125 150 150

675

795

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 75 75 100 100 100 100 125 125 125 150 150

750

874

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 75 75 100 100 100 100 125 125 125 150 150

825

952

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 75 75 100 100 100 100 125 125 125 150 150

900

1035

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 75 75 100 100 100 100 125 125 125 150 150

1050

1185

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 75 75 100 100 100 100 100 125 125 125 150

1200

1340

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 75 75 100 100 100 100 100 125 125 125 150

1350

1500

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 75 75 100 100 100 100 100 125 125 125 150

1500

1670

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 75 75 75 100 100 100 100 125 125 125 150

1650

1830

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 75 75 75 100 100 100 100 125 125 125 150

1800

2003

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 75 75 75 100 100 100 100 125 125 125 150
Required D-Load pipe for a Class-C bedding in a Embankment with THM7 traffic loading

Nom. Dia.

Pipe OD

Height of backfill above top of pipe (m)

(mm)

(mm)

0.3

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

5.5

6.0

6.5

7.0

7.5

8.0

8.5

9.0

9.5

10.0

225

280

75 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 75 100 100 100 125 125 150 150 150 150 175 175 200

300

368

75 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 75 100 100 100 125 125 150 150 150 150 175 175 200

375

460

75 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 100 100 100 100 125 125 150 150 150 175 175 175

450

536

75 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 100 100 100 100 125 125 150 150 150 175 175 175

525

629

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 75 100 100 100 125 125 150 150 150 150 175 175

600

700

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 75 100 100 100 125 125 150 150 150 150 175 175

675

795

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 75 100 100 100 125 125 150 150 150 150 175 175

750

874

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 75 100 100 100 125 125 125 150 150 150 175 175

825

952

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 75 100 100 100 125 125 125 150 150 150 175 175

900

1035

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 75 100 100 100 125 125 125 150 150 150 175 175

1050

1185

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 75 100 100 100 100 125 125 150 150 150 175 175

1200

1340

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 75 100 100 100 100 125 125 150 150 150 175 175

1350

1500

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 100 100 100 100 125 125 150 150 150 150 175

1500

1670

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 100 100 100 100 125 125 150 150 150 150 175

1650

1830

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 100 100 100 100 125 125 150 150 150 150 175

1800

2003

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 75 75 100 100 100 100 125 125 150 150 150 150 175

Design criteria:

  1. Granular backfill material k?= 0.1650
  2. Soil Density = 20 kN/m3
  3. Projection Ratio P = 0.9
  4. Settlement Ratio rsd= 0.7

 

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